Nowadays continuous monitoring solar activity and space weather prediction are important and unique problems of space research of the Sun. Installation of specific equipment onboard of CubeSat nanosatellites instead of large geostationary spacecraft for meteorological research will significantly reduce the cost and wait time for launch and solution of such scientific problems.
For non-stop observations of the Sun at least two satellites are required. One of them should always be on the illuminated part of the orbit. Piggyback launch of both satellites is now about the only way to get the working orbit, so, a special device is required to deploy the constellation.
We propose an alternative concept based on the use of the two-blade rotor solar sail technology for the nanosatellite constellation formation. Due to this technology, it becomes possible to reconstruct the constellation after the certain work time as well as deorbit waste satellites into the lower layers of the atmosphere.
The payload onboard the designed nanosatellites is the X-ray photometer for registration of emission of the whole Sun in the range 0.5-15 keV developed in P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science. This highly sensitive instrument allows the observation of solar activity associated with the processes of flaring energy release, which has a significant impact on an interplanetary environment and space weather.
The design of the developed spacecraft and the concept of constellation formation are shown in Fig. 1,2.